Yield and water productivity of rice as affected by time of transplanting in Punjab, India
T.S. Bharaj and
Agricultural Water Management, 2009, vol. 96, issue 3, 525-532
Early planting of rice crop during the period of peak evaporative demand results in substantial mining of ground water and threats the sustainability of rice production in Punjab, northwest India. In order to increase yield and water productivity, arrest the mining of ground water, and achieve sustainability of rice production, there is need to adopt water-saving management practices. The present investigation in the Indian Punjab was aimed at investigating the effect of date of transplanting in four rice cultivars varying in growth duration (short-duration RH-257 and PR-115, and medium-duration PR-113 and PAU-201) on yield and water productivity. Delaying in transplanting from 15 June to 25 June or 5 July resulted in reduction in mean grain yield of the four cultivars by 7.2% and 15.9%, respectively. PAU-201, a photoperiod-sensitive cultivar, had higher mean grain yield (7.8 t ha-1) by 14.1%, 12.8% and 11.5% over the photoperiod-insensitive cultivars, PR-113, PR-115 and RH-257, respectively. Irrespective of transplanting dates, short-duration cultivars, RH-257 and PR-115, respectively, resulted in 18.9% and 16.6% saving of water, as compared to medium-duration cultivar PR-113. With delayed transplanting after 15 June, both yield and water productivity decreased for all photoperiod insensitive cultivars, but yields remained statistically similar and water productivity greater for a photoperiod sensitive cultivar. Mean irrigation water productivity (WPI) was highest for 15 June transplanting (0.66 kg m-3) and lowest for 5 July transplanting (0.57 kg m-3), and was highest for RH-257 (0.68 kg m-3) and lowest for PR-113 (0.50 kg m-3). Total water productivity (WPI+R; irrigation plus rainfall) decreased by 9.1% for 5 July transplanting compared with 15 June transplanting, and was highest for RH-257 (0.49 kg m-3) and lowest for PR-113 (0.38 kg m-3). Real crop water productivity (WPET) of the photoperiod insensitive cultivars decreased (1.10-1.40 kg m-3), but that of a photoperiod sensitive cultivar increased (1.63 kg m-3), with delayed transplanting. We conclude that substantial amount of water can be saved and yield increased by transplanting short-duration cultivars during the period of peak evaporative demand, or water saved and yield maintained by transplanting a photoperiod-sensitive cultivar late in the season when the evaporative demand is low.
Keywords: Short-duration; cultivars; Medium-duration; cultivars; Photoperiod-sensitive; cultivar; Photoperiod-insensitive; cultivars; Date; of; transplanting; Water; saving; Indo-Gangetic; Plain (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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