Environmental degradation in France: The effects of FDI, financial development, and energy innovations
Muhammad Shahbaz (),
Muhammad Ali Nasir () and
David Roubaud ()
Energy Economics, 2018, vol. 74, issue C, 843-857
This paper explores the determinants of carbon emissions in France by accounting for the significant role played by foreign direct investment (FDI), financial development, economic growth, energy consumption and energy research innovations in influencing CO2 emissions function. In this endeavour, we employ the novel SOR (Shahbaz et al. 2017) unit root test on French time series data over the period 1955–2016 to examine the order of integration in the presence of sharp and smooth structural breaks in the variables. We also apply the bootstrapping bounds testing approach, recently developed by McNown et al. (2018), to investigate the presence of cointegration and the empirical findings underscore the presence of cointegration among the time series. Moreover, we find that FDI has a positive impact, while energy research innovations have a negative impact, on French carbon emissions. Financial development lowers carbon emissions, thereby improving the French environmental quality. FDI degrades the environment, and thus supports the pollution-haven hypothesis in France. Similarly, financial development suggests that financial stability is a required condition for improving environmental quality, so are energy research innovations. Contrarily, energy consumption is positively linked with carbon emissions. However, the relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions is an inverted-U, which is a validation of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC).
Keywords: FDI; Carbon emissions; Financial development; Energy research innovations (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: F21 O13 P18 Q43 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (38) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
Working Paper: Environmental Degradation in France: The Effects of FDI, Financial Development, and Energy Innovations (2018)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:74:y:2018:i:c:p:843-857
Access Statistics for this article
Energy Economics is currently edited by R. S. J. Tol, Beng Ang, Lance Bachmeier, Perry Sadorsky, Ugur Soytas and J. P. Weyant
More articles in Energy Economics from Elsevier
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Nithya Sathishkumar ().