Causality between trade openness and energy consumption: What causes what in high, middle and low income countries
Muhammad Shahbaz (),
Chong Hui Ling and
Rashid Sbia ()
Energy Policy, 2014, vol. 70, issue C, 126-143
This paper explores the relationship between trade openness and energy consumption using data of 91 high, middle and low income countries. The study covers the period of 1980–2010. We have applied panel cointegration to examine long run relationship between the variables. The direction of causal relationship between trade openness is investigated by applying Homogenous non-causality, Homogenous causality and Heterogeneous causality tests.
Keywords: Trade; Energy; Causality (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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Journal Article: Causality between Trade Openness and Energy Consumption- What Causes What in High, Middle and Low Income Countries (2014)
Working Paper: Causality between trade openness and energy consumption: What causes what in high, middle and low income countries (2014)
Working Paper: Causality between Trade Openness and Energy Consumption: What Causes What in High, Middle and Low Income countries (2013)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:enepol:v:70:y:2014:i:c:p:126-143
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