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The hedging effect of green bonds on carbon market risk

Jiayu Jin, Liyan Han, Lei Wu and Hongchao Zeng

International Review of Financial Analysis, 2020, vol. 71, issue C

Abstract: This paper explores effective hedging instruments for carbon market risk. Examining the relationship between the carbon futures returns and the returns of four major market indices, i.e., the VIX index, the commodity index, the energy index and the green bond index, we find that the connectedness between the carbon futures returns and the green bond index returns is the highest and this connectedness is extremely pronounced during the market's volatile period. Further, we develop and evaluate hedging strategies based on three dynamic hedge ratio models (DCC-APGARCH, DCC-T-GARCH, and DCC-GJR-GARCH models) and the constant hedge ratio model (OLS model). Empirical results show that among the four market indices the green bond index is the best hedge for carbon futures and performs well even in the crisis period. The paper also provides evidence that the dynamic hedge ratio models are superior to the OLS model in the volatile period as more sophisticated models can capture the dynamic correlation and volatility spillover between the carbon futures and market index returns.

Keywords: Carbon market risk; Green bonds; Hedging strategies; Portfolio management; Market indices (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2020
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DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2020.101509

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