The costs and benefits of REDD+: A review of the literature
Chunbo Ma () and
Forest Policy and Economics, 2017, vol. 75, issue C, 103-111
The costs and benefits of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) projects are often reported in isolation. There is a lack of comprehensive understanding of the types of REDD+ costs and benefits reported in the literature. In this paper, we conducted a review of 60 unique REDD+ costs and benefits studies. We found that no single study covers all categories of costs and benefits in a comparable form. A total of 56 comparable estimates were available for opportunity costs, 21 for transaction and implementation costs, 23 for total costs, and only four for direct monetary benefits. We found that, on average, the total REDD+ cost ($24.87/tCO2e) was 2.23 times higher than the opportunity cost and the opportunity cost was 3.28 times higher than the transaction and implementation costs. Costs estimates among studies vary widely based on estimation approach used and the scale of the studies. We noted that future REDD+ costs and benefits studies should provide estimates of all relevant costs and benefits, and the distribution of these costs and benefits among project stakeholders. These findings have implications in REDD+ project design and implementation.
Keywords: REDD+; Opportunity cost; Transaction cost; Implementation cost; Direct benefit; Estimation approach (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (17) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:forpol:v:75:y:2017:i:c:p:103-111
Access Statistics for this article
Forest Policy and Economics is currently edited by M. Krott
More articles in Forest Policy and Economics from Elsevier
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Catherine Liu ().