Urbanization, democracy, bureaucratic quality, and environmental degradation
Samuel Adams and
Edem Kwame Mensah Klobodu
Journal of Policy Modeling, 2017, vol. 39, issue 6, 1035-1051
The study examines the relationship between urbanization and environment degradation while controlling for political environment in 38 African countries over the period 1970–2011. Using panel cointegration and causality analyses, we find that urbanization, environmental degradation (CO2 emissions) and political economy variables (democracy and bureaucratic quality) are cointegrated. Second, democracy and bureaucratic quality are effective in reducing environmental degradation in the long-run. Third, there are positive bi-directional relationships between CO2 emissions and affluence and population as shown by panel vector autoregressive and impulse response functions. However, a negative uni-directional relationship runs from CO2 emissions to bureaucratic quality. These results suggest that political economy variables are important in explaining the relationship between urbanization and environmental degradation.
Keywords: Urbanization; Environmental degradation; CO2 emissions; Democracy; Bureaucratic quality; Panel cointegration (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C50 O18 O43 Q50 R11 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:39:y:2017:i:6:p:1035-1051
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