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‘Exploiting – land, sea and space: Mineral superpower’ In the name of peace: A critical race to protect the depths and heights

Sarah Jane Fox

Resources Policy, 2022, vol. 79, issue C

Abstract: The extraction of minerals from the land has invariably led to conflicts, including between nations. As our dependency on minerals intensifies so does the drive to seek these out and to exploit them, not just on the land but from the sea. The potential is that, despite opposition, deep sea mining could occur as earlier as 2023, yet we are still not prepared in respect to understanding the consequences to the planet – including the related geopolitics. Both the land and the sea have witnessed sovereignty creep, which could also be expanded to outer space. This research applies a triangulated approach, exploring the green (the land) the blue (the sea) and the black (outer space) and looks at lessons ‘we’ (humanity - as one united species) should be learning from today and our past. It predicts the likelihood of trouble ahead not just on Earth, on the land, but at sea and in space – with a return to an even colder (war) period, which is partly driven by acquiring mineral wealth and, also retaining, sovereign dominance.

Keywords: Mining; Deep-sea-mining; Outer space; Sovereignty; Peace/conflict; Security; Energy; Technology (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2022
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DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2022.103066

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