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Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment: Impacts of native and non-indigenous species

Jose A. Fernandes, Lionel Santos, Thomas Vance, Tim Fileman, David Smith, John D.D. Bishop, Frédérique Viard, Ana M. Queirós, Gorka Merino, Erik Buisman and Melanie C. Austen

Marine Policy, 2016, vol. 64, issue C, 148-155

Abstract: Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS). Further mitigation measures to reduce the transport of NIS within ballast water and sediments impose additional costs. The estimated operational cost of NIS mitigation measures may represent between 1.6% and 4% of the annual operational cost for a ship operating on European seas, with the higher proportional costs in small ships. However, fouling by NIS may affect fuel consumption more than fouling by native species due to differences in species’ life-history traits and their resistance to antifouling coatings and pollution. Therefore, it is possible that the cost of NIS mitigation measures could be smaller than the cost from higher fuel consumption arising from fouling by NIS.

Keywords: Non-indigenous species; Native; Biofouling; Ballast water; Economic impact; Maritime; Shipping; Mitigation measures (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2016
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DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2015.11.015

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