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A comparative review of heating systems in EU countries, based on efficiency and fuel cost

Georgios Martinopoulos, Konstantinos T. Papakostas and Agis M. Papadopoulos

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018, vol. 90, issue C, 687-699

Abstract: The building sector in the European Union constitutes one of the largest energy consumers. The majority of the current building stock is more than 30 years old with insufficient thermal protection, thus space heating is the major energy-consuming activity. In this study, an overview of the building stock in different European countries is presented along with the present situation of heating systems and fuel used. A review of the different technological solutions available for space and water heating is given and the most commonly used heating systems in the residential building sector in EU countries are compared, using as criteria equipment efficiency and fuel cost.

Keywords: Heating systems; Residential buildings; Efficiency; Fuel costs; Operating costs (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2018
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