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Misallocation and reallocation of resources in Vietnamese manufacturing firms

Phuong Thi Nguyen and Minh Khac Nguyen

Journal of Economic Studies, 2020, vol. 47, issue 7, 1605-1627

Abstract: Purpose - This research identifies the level of misallocation in Vietnamese manufacturing sector for the period 2000–2015. Meltiz and Polanec dynamic productivity decomposition is used to compare the relative productivity contributions from surviving, entering and exiting firms to aggregate productivity change by the type of ownership. Heckman's two-step model is used to examine the effect of misallocation and industry- and firm-level factors on entry or exit decision and market share of firms in Vietnamese manufacturing sector. Design/methodology/approach - The level of misallocation and efficiency gains in total factor productivity (TFP) are assessed using Hsieh and Klenow (2009) productivity decomposition framework for the period 2000–2015. The dynamic productivity decomposition of Meltiz and Polanec (2015) is used to compare the relative contributions from surviving, entering and exiting firms to aggregate productivity change. The effects of misallocation and other factors on entry or exit decisions and market share of firms are determined by using Heckman choice model. Findings - The results indicate three main points. Firstly, resource misallocation is found to be highest among state-owned enterprise (SOEs) and low technology industries. TFP is found to 81.2% greater if there is no resource misallocation among firms. Secondly, the aggregate productivity change for the entering, exiting and surviving firms is 35% due to productivity reallocation among three groups. Finally, the decision of entry or exit as well as the market share of firms are influenced by misallocation and industry- and firm-level factors such as Vietnam's WTO entry, tax policy, financial frictions, industrial concentration, technology gap, capital intensity, human capital, scale of firm, time entry and FDI spillovers. The result finds the higher misallocation level is, the lower the probability and market share for a new firm to enter in the industry is. Research limitations/implications - The main limitation of the study is that the market is assumed perfectly competitive and the method has only decomposed misallocation of resources to those arising from output and capital distortions. The results of Heckman choice model only clarify on the sub-sample of state-owned enterprises and low technology firms. Originality/value - The focus of many previous research papers on resource misallocation was generally to look at the level of misallocation in developed countries. However, knowledge about the effect of misallocation and other factors on entry or exit decisions and market share of firms is limited, particularly in the context of developing countries. This paper clarifies the level of misallocation in Vietnamese manufacturing sector and the effect of misallocation and other factors on entry or exit decisions and market share of firms.

Keywords: Firm decisions; Manufacturing sector; Misallocation; TFP; Vietnam (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2020
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