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Piling up or Packaging Policies? An Ex-Post Analysis of Modal Shift in Four Cities

Marc Dijk (), Moshe Givoni () and Karen Diederiks ()
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Marc Dijk: International Center for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development (ICIS), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Moshe Givoni: Transport Research Unit, Department of Geography and the Human Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
Karen Diederiks: International Center for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development (ICIS), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands

Energies, 2018, vol. 11, issue 6, 1-20

Abstract: Recently, there has been wider acknowledgement that sustainable urban mobility will not be triggered by one ‘silver bullet’ policy, or by piling up various policies, but requires a deliberate package of policies. Until recently, studies on policy instrument (or measure) interaction have been primarily ex-ante studies, estimating interactions in the future. However, from an evidence-based policy-making perspective, ex-ante evaluations need to use knowledge gained through ex-post evaluations, a crucial link in the policy cycle. To contribute to the strengthening of this poor link, this paper provides an ex-post analysis of instrument interaction in four northwest European, medium-sized cities: Bruges, Ghent, Jena & Erfurt. By exposing the relationships between the range of mobility policies implemented in relation to modal shift achieved, we offer insight into the crucial difference between ‘piling up policies’ and deliberate policy packages. As such, the paper offers evidence to inform ex-ante analysis for urban mobility policy-making and contributes to policy learning as part of effective governance.

Keywords: policy package; policy mix; car mobility; modal shift; sustainability; urban transition (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: Q Q0 Q4 Q40 Q41 Q42 Q43 Q47 Q48 Q49 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2018
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