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Scheduling Optimization of a Cabinet Refrigerator Incorporating a Phase Change Material to Reduce Its Indirect Environmental Impact

Angelo Maiorino (), Adrián Mota-Babiloni (), Manuel Gesù Del Duca () and Ciro Aprea ()
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Angelo Maiorino: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Adrián Mota-Babiloni: ISTENER Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castellón de la Plana, Spain
Manuel Gesù Del Duca: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Ciro Aprea: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy

Energies, 2021, vol. 14, issue 8, 1-17

Abstract: Phase Change Materials (PCMs) incorporated in refrigerators can be used to shift their energy consumption from peak periods, when the electric network energy demand is the highest, to off-peak periods. While PCMs can flatten the energy demand curve, they can achieve economic savings if Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity tariffs are applied. However, the hourly carbon emission factor is not commonly linked to the hourly tariff, and the final CO 2 emitted due to the operations of the refrigerator would not be fully optimized. In this work, a method based on the Simulated Annealing optimization technique was proposed to identify the optimal working schedule of a cabinet refrigerator incorporating a PCM to reduce its indirect carbon emissions. Data from countries with different representative carbon intensity profiles were used. The normalized standard deviation and normalized range are the best statistical indexes to predict carbon emission reduction in the proposed solution. These parameters proved that countries with a higher hourly carbon intensity variation (Uruguay, France, Denmark, and Germany) benefit from the application of the algorithm. Cost and carbon emission reduction cannot be maximized simultaneously, and a trade-off is required.

Keywords: thermal energy storage (TES); phase change materials (PCMs); optimization; carbon emission; carbon intensity; cooling (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: Q Q0 Q4 Q40 Q41 Q42 Q43 Q47 Q48 Q49 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2021
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