EconPapers    
Economics at your fingertips  
 

Exploring the Associations between Early Childhood Development Outcomes and Ecological Country-Level Factors across Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Kasim Allel (), Gerard Abou Jaoude (), Stavros Poupakis (), Neha Batura (), Jolene Skordis () and Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli ()
Additional contact information
Kasim Allel: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Neha Batura: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Jolene Skordis: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK

IJERPH, 2021, vol. 18, issue 7, 1-15

Abstract: A poor start in life shapes children’s development over the life-course. Children from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to low levels of early stimulation, greater socioeconomic deprivation and persistent environmental and health challenges. Nevertheless, little is known about country-specific factors affecting early childhood development (ECD) in LMICs. Using data from 68 LMICs collected as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys between 2010 and 2018, along with other publicly available data sources, we employed a multivariate linear regression analysis at a national level to assess the association between the average Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) in children aged 3–5 and country-level ecological characteristics: early learning and nurturing care and socioeconomic and health indicators. Our results show that upper-middle-income country status, attendance at early childhood education (ECE) programs and the availability of books at home are positively associated with a higher ECDI. Conversely, the prevalence of low birthweight and high under-5 and maternal mortality are negatively associated with ECDI nationally. On average, LMICs with inadequate stimulation at home, higher mortality rates and without mandatory ECE programs are at greater risks of poorer ECDI. Investment in early-year interventions to improve nurturing care and ECD outcomes is essential for achieving Sustainable Development Goals.

Keywords: early childhood development; low- and middle-income countries; inequalities; Sustainable Development Goals; child health (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I I1 I3 Q Q5 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2021
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed

Downloads: (external link)
https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/7/3340/pdf (application/pdf)
https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/7/3340/ (text/html)

Related works:
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.

Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/Text

Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:18:y:2021:i:7:p:3340-:d:523054

Access Statistics for this article

IJERPH is currently edited by Ms. Arlene Chen

More articles in IJERPH from MDPI
Bibliographic data for series maintained by MDPI Indexing Manager ().

 
Page updated 2023-01-31
Handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:18:y:2021:i:7:p:3340-:d:523054