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Estimation of Direct and Indirect Household CO 2 Emissions in 49 Japanese Cities with Consideration of Regional Conditions

Yujiro Hirano (), Tomohiko Ihara (), Masayuki Hara () and Keita Honjo ()
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Yujiro Hirano: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Fukushima Environmental Creation Centre, 10-2 Fukasaku, Miharu Town, Tamura District, Fukushima 963-7700, Japan
Tomohiko Ihara: The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563, Japan
Masayuki Hara: Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan
Keita Honjo: Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan

Sustainability, 2020, vol. 12, issue 11, 1-17

Abstract: We conducted a detailed estimation of direct and indirect CO 2 emissions related to multi-person households in 49 Japanese cities. Direct energy consumption was decomposed into energy use in order to consider the relationship with regional conditions. The results showed that CO 2 emissions from direct energy consumption were almost as large as indirect CO 2 emissions induced by consuming products and services, suggesting that lifestyle improvements are important for both energy savings and reducing CO 2 emissions relating to product and service consumption. In addition, CO 2 emissions from direct energy consumption varied widely between cities, making them susceptible to regional conditions. We also calculated CO 2 emissions from direct energy consumption and examined the regional conditions for individual forms of energy use. CO 2 emissions were higher in cold regions and lower in larger cities. In Japan, large cities are often located in relatively warm areas, so we conducted an analysis to distinguish the effects of climatic conditions from those of urbanization. This analysis allowed us to clarify the effects of regional conditions on factors such as heating/cooling and the ratio of detached houses to apartments.

Keywords: household energy consumption; consumption behaviors; indirect CO 2 emission; regional characteristics; lifestyles; low-carbon society (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O13 Q Q0 Q2 Q3 Q5 Q56 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2020
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Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:12:y:2020:i:11:p:4678-:d:368866