EconPapers    
Economics at your fingertips  
 

Overview of Current Microgrid Policies, Incentives and Barriers in the European Union, United States and China

Amjad Ali (), Wuhua Li (), Rashid Hussain (), Xiangning He (), Barry W. Williams () and Abdul Hameed Memon ()
Additional contact information
Amjad Ali: Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology (FEST), Hamdard University, Karachi 74600, Pakistan
Wuhua Li: College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Rashid Hussain: Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology (FEST), Hamdard University, Karachi 74600, Pakistan
Xiangning He: College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Barry W. Williams: College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Abdul Hameed Memon: Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Technology (FEST), Hamdard University, Karachi 74600, Pakistan

Sustainability, 2017, vol. 9, issue 7, 1-28

Abstract: Continuously increasing demand of microgrids with high penetration of distributed energy generators, mainly renewable energy sources, is modifying the traditional structure of the electric distribution grid. Major power consumer countries are looking for alternative energy sources to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel consumption. Thus, different policies have been promulgated to promote renewable energy technologies (RETs) and distributed energy resource (DER) deployment and are encouraging technological innovation. These policies aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and achieve energy security and independence to meet an ever-increasing electricity demand. Many studies have been performed on the successful integration of RET and DER operation and control, protection and stability issues, all simultaneously and satisfactorily implemented during feasible microgrid operation. However, apart from the technical challenges, few microgrid studies exist on effective policies and incentives for microgrid promotion and deployment. This survey investigates the policy, regulatory and financial (economical and commercial) barriers, which hinder the deployment of microgrids in the European Union (EU), United States (USA) and China. In this paper, a clear view on microgrid policy instruments and challenges are investigated to aid future developments.

Keywords: microgrid; policy; incentive; barrier; renewable energy; distributed generation (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: Q Q0 Q2 Q3 Q5 Q56 O13 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2017
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations View citations in EconPapers (1) Track citations by RSS feed

Downloads: (external link)
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/7/1146/pdf (application/pdf)
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/7/1146/ (text/html)

Related works:
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.

Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/Text

Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:7:p:1146-:d:103057

Access Statistics for this article

Sustainability is currently edited by Prof. Dr. Marc A. Rosen

More articles in Sustainability from MDPI, Open Access Journal
Bibliographic data for series maintained by XML Conversion Team ().

 
Page updated 2018-10-02
Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:7:p:1146-:d:103057