A Role for Universal Pension? Simulating Universal Pensions in Ecuador, Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa
Maria Jouste () and
Pia Rattenhuber ()
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Maria Jouste: University of Turku, Department of Economics, Turku, Finland. UNU-WIDER, Helsinki, Finland.
Pia Rattenhuber: UNU-WIDER, Helsinki, Finland.
International Journal of Microsimulation, 2019, vol. 12, issue 1, 13-51
We use four novel, cross-country comparable tax-benefit microsimulation models for Ecuador, Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa to analyse ex ante the expansion of a universal old-age pension in a static setting. Universal pensions would significantly reduce poverty and inequality in settings where no means-tested old-age pensions exist (such as in Ghana and Tanzania). If means-tested old-age pensions exist and shall be maintained, universal pensions as a top up scheme only make a difference for the income distribution if the existing schemes do not reach the entire vulnerable population such as in Ecuador. Costs for the proposed schemes are substantial.
Keywords: TAX-BENEFIT MICROSIMULATION; SOUTHMOD; POVERTY; PENSION SYSTEMS (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C15 H55 I32 I38 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:ijm:journl:v:12:y:2019:i:1:p:13-51
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