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Russia’s invasion of Ukraine: assessment of the humanitarian, economic, and financial impact in the short and medium term

Vasily Astrov (), Mahdi Ghodsi, Richard Grieveson, Mario Holzner (), Artem Kochnev, Michael Landesmann (), Olga Pindyuk, Robert Stehrer, Maryna Tverdostup and Alexandra Bykova
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Richard Grieveson: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Wiiw)
Olga Pindyuk: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Wiiw)
Maryna Tverdostup: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Wiiw)
Alexandra Bykova: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Wiiw)

International Economics and Economic Policy, 2022, vol. 19, issue 2, No 6, 381 pages

Abstract: Abstract What are the economic effects of the Ukraine war for Ukraine, Russia, and the rest of Europe? In this study, the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw) sheds light on the immediate consequences on the one hand, but also on the medium-term structural changes caused by the largest armed conflict in Europe since the Second World War. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has triggered a humanitarian crisis. Pre-war, almost 19 m people lived in those regions that are currently directly affected. Refugee inflows to the rest of Europe are likely to be at least three times greater than in 2015/2016. As Black Sea ports come under Russian assault, Ukraine has lost its ability to sell more than half of its exports, primarily agricultural commodities and metals. Western financial support will become ever more important as the war continues. Turning to Russia, sanctions will have a very serious impact on that country’s economy and financial sector. Despite being partly hamstrung by the fact that a large proportion of Russian reserve assets are frozen in the EU and G7, the central bank managed to stabilise financial markets by a combination of confidence-building and hard-steering measures: capital controls, FX controls, regulatory easing for financial institutions, and a doubling of the key policy rate. The medium-term and long-term outlook is negative. As a result of the war and the sanctions, the rest of Europe faces a surge in already high inflation; this will weigh on real incomes and will depress economic growth. Many European countries rely heavily on Russia for oil and gas imports: import shares are over 75% in Czechia, Latvia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Bulgaria with respect to natural gas; Slovakia, Lithuania, Poland, and Finland with respect to oil and petroleum; and Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Denmark, Lithuania, Greece, and Bulgaria with respect to solid fuels. Aside from energy, the fallout via trade for the rest of Europe is likely to be small. Non-energy trade and investment links between Russia and many European countries have declined in importance since 2013. There are four main areas of structural change and lasting impact for the EU (and Europe more broadly) as a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. First, the EU will get more serious about defence. Second, the green transition will gather pace. Third, broader Eurasian economic integration will be unwound. And fourth, the EU accession prospects for countries in Southeast Europe could (and should) improve.

Keywords: Ukraine; Russia; EU; US; Sanctions; Energy; CEE; F51; E31 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: E31 F51 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2022
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DOI: 10.1007/s10368-022-00546-5

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