Increasing material efficiencies of buildings to address the global sand crisis
Xiaoyang Zhong (),
Arnold Tukker and
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Xiaoyang Zhong: Leiden University
Sebastiaan Deetman: Leiden University
Arnold Tukker: Leiden University
Paul Behrens: Leiden University
Nature Sustainability, 2022, vol. 5, issue 5, 389-392
Abstract There is a rapidly unfolding sand supply crisis in meeting growing material needs for infrastructure. We find a ~45% increase in global building sand use from 2020 to 2060 under a middle-of-the-road baseline scenario, with a 300% increase across low-and-lower-middle-income regions and a slight decrease in higher-income regions. Half of this demand may be avoidable using several material efficiency strategies in concert. International cooperation is essential for addressing vulnerabilities and inequalities.
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