How private sector participation improves retirement preparation: A case from China
Wei Zheng (),
Zining Liu () and
Ruo Jia ()
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Wei Zheng: Peking University
Zining Liu: Peking University
Ruo Jia: Peking University
The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, 2019, vol. 44, issue 1, 123-147
Abstract This paper shows empirically how private sector participation improves the adequacy and equality of retirement preparation in a three-pillar retirement system. We develop a three-layer replacement rate approach based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationwide representative household survey of middle-aged and old aged population. Our empirical evidence shows that private sector participation increased the mean (median) replacement rate in 2013 from 35.4% (15.4%) to 69.8% (48.7%). The evidence also suggests that annuitising home equity is responsible for a large portion of this increase. Surprisingly, private sector participation also mitigates the inequality of retirement preparation between the formal and informal sectors. Our empirical findings emphasise the importance of annuitisable private savings for the retirement income security of the one-fifth of the global population who live in a representatively high-growth and rapidly ageing economy.
Keywords: Retirement preparation; Pension; Replacement rate; Adequacy; Equality; China (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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