Toward a Theory of International New ventures
Benjamin M Oviatt and
Patricia Phillips McDougall
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Benjamin M Oviatt: Georgia State University
Patricia Phillips McDougall: Georgia Institute of Technology
Journal of International Business Studies, 1994, vol. 25, issue 1, 45-64
The formation of organizations that are international from inception—international new ventures—is an increasingly important phenomenon that is incongruent with traditionally expected characteristics of multinational enterprises. A framework is presented that explains the phenomenon by integrating international business, entrepreneurship, and strategic management theory. That framework describes four necessary and sufficient elements for the existence of international new ventures: (1) organizational formation through internalization of some transactions, (2) strong reliance on alternative governance structures to access resources, (3) establishment of foreign location advantages, and (4) control over unique resources.© 1994 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1994) 25, 45–64
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