An Investigation of Gender Differences in Leadership Across Four Countries
Cristina B Gibson
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Cristina B Gibson: University of California
Journal of International Business Studies, 1995, vol. 26, issue 2, 255-279
This study investigates the emphasis males and females place on leadership behaviors and styles across four countries characterized as two cultural dyads (Norway - Sweden and Australia - U.S.). Previous gender comparisons and cross-cultural studies of leadership are reviewed. A framework for exploring leadership, consisting of five leadership behaviors and six leadership styles, is then presented and tested with questionnaire data from 209 managers across the four countries. Results demonstrate significant effects for gender and country, but no interaction effects, Post-hoc analyses suggest that across all four countries, male emphasize the goal setting dimension, while females emphasize the interaction facilitation dimension. Australians scored significantly differently than leaders in the other countries on interaction facilitation, benevolent autocratic style, and laissez-faire style. These findings are discussed in light of gender characteristics and cultural values.© 1995 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1995) 26, 255–279
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