The implicit return on domestic and international sales: An empirical analysis of US and Japanese firms
Kiyohiko Ito and
Elizabeth L Rose
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Kiyohiko Ito: Shidler College of Business, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
Elizabeth L Rose: Department of Marketing and Management, Aalto University School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland
Journal of International Business Studies, 2010, vol. 41, issue 6, 1074-1089
An empirical analysis of imputed returns on international and domestic sales suggests that neither US nor Japanese manufacturing firms consistently used domestic profits to subsidize foreign operations. Apart from the early 1990s, when the yen was particularly strong, Japanese firms generally realized higher profits in foreign markets than in their domestic market, opposite to the conventional direction for cross-subsidization. US firms also tended to have higher estimated returns from foreign markets after 1985. Our results are consistent with Hymer's theory of ownership advantage, which posits that firms with successful foreign operations must have specific advantages, relative to local firms.
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