A Dynamic Analysis of the Relationship among Human Development, Exports and Economic Growth in Pakistan
Muhammad Afzal (),
A. Rauf Butt,
Hafeez Rehman and
Additional contact information
A. Rauf Butt: School of Business and Economics, University of Management and Technology
Ishrat Begum: Political Science, Queen Marry College, Lahore
The Pakistan Development Review, 2009, vol. 48, issue 4, 885–920
This study investigates the econometrically empirical evidence of both the short-run and long-run interrelationships among human development, exports and economic growth in an ARDL framework for Pakistan. This study also examines causal linkages among the said variables by applying the Augmented Granger Causality test of Toda-Yamamoto (1995). By using data on Pakistan’s real GDP, real exports and Human Development Index (HDI) for the period 1970-71 to 2008-09, three models have been estimated. The results show cointegration between economic growth, physical capital, real exports and human development when human development is taken as dependent variables. Furthermore, unidirectional Granger causality running from real GDP to real exports has been found in Bivariate, Trivariate and Tetravariate causality framework. The inclusion of HDI as a measure of human development reduces the physical capital share in real GDP whereas it improves the robustness of the regression model. Real GDP seems to provide resources to improve human development in only the long-run while human capital accumulation does not seem to accelerate real GDP both in the short -run and the long-run. The empirical results of the study do not support ‘export -led growth hypothesis ’ and human capital-based endogenous growth theory in case of Pakistan, however, it does support ‘growth-driven exports hypothesis ’ in case of Pakistan.
Keywords: Human Development; Exports; Economic Growth; ARDL; Causality (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O11 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: Add references at CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (2) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:pid:journl:v:48:y:2009:i:4:p:885-920
Access Statistics for this article
More articles in The Pakistan Development Review from Pakistan Institute of Development Economics Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Khurram Iqbal ().