Developing cookies formulated with goat cream enriched with conjugated linoleic acid
Ana C S Costa,
Diego E Pereira,
Caio M Veríssimo,
Marcos A D Bomfim,
Rita C R E Queiroga,
Marta S Madruga,
Rui J B Bessa,
Maria E G Oliveira and
Juliana K B Soares
PLOS ONE, 2019, vol. 14, issue 9, 1-15
Goat fat is one of the best sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has health benefits. However, though CLA is generated in ruminants, CLA consumption is limited to meats and milk products. This study aimed to replace vegetable fat with goat milk fat enriched with CLA. From differing fat sources, four cookie recipes were developed: CVF–vegetable fat cookies; CB–butter cookies; CG–goat milk fat cookies without CLA; CGCLA–goat milk fat cookies with CLA. The cookies were evaluated using physical (color and texture), physical-chemical parameters (lipids, proteins, total sugars, fiber, ash, moisture and Aw), consumer testing (n = 123), and lipid profiles. The CGCLA presented higher values in the color parameters. The highest and the lowest scores obtained for hardness were respectively 5.54 (CB) and 2.21 (CVF). Lipids and total sugars varied inversely; the highest percentages of lipids were in the CVF and CG samples which obtained lower total sugar content. There were no differences in acceptance or preference for the four formulations. The goat cream formulations (CG and CGCLA) were as well accepted as the CFV formulation. For lipid profiles, CFV presented the highest percentage of trans-fatty acids (TFA) at 16.76%. CGCLA presented 70% more CLA than either CB or CG, certifying that CGCLA presents CLA in relevant quantities, even after cooking. The CGCLA presented higher levels of CLA, and in this study it was verified that goat milk cream enriched with CLA can be used in producing cookies, adding functional and nutritional properties, and offering another alternative(s) to produce food from goat milk fat.
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