Tofu intake is inversely associated with risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies
Xingming Liu and
PLOS ONE, 2020, vol. 15, issue 1, 1-13
Observational studies on the association between tofu intake and breast cancer incidence have reported inconsistent results. We reviewed the current evidence and quantitatively assessed this association by conducting a dose-response meta-analysis. The electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant studies published up to August, 2018. We included epidemiological studies that reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tofu intake and breast cancer risk. A total of 14 studies (2 cohort studies, 12 case-control studies) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall OR of breast cancer for highest vs lowest intake of tofu was 0.78 (95% CI 0.69–0.88), with moderate heterogeneity (P = 0.011, I2 = 49.7%). Dose-response analysis based on 5 case-control studies revealed that each 10 g/d increase in tofu intake was associated with 10% reduction in the risk of breast cancer (95% CI 7%–13%, P = 0.037, I2 = 40.8%). In summary, our findings suggest an inverse dose-response association between tofu intake and risk of breast cancer. However, owing to the limitations of case-control studies, more properly designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm this association.
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