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Evolución de los factores de riesgo de exclusión social por regiones en España

Úrsula Faura Martínez and Matilde Lafuente Lechuga

Revista de Estudios Regionales, 2012, vol. 03, 175-197

Abstract: RESUMEN: A partir de los datos ofrecidos por la Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida para los años 2005 y 2009 se analiza la vulnerabilidad a la exclusión social de los adultos residentes en España por Comunidades Autónomas. Mediante la técnica multivariante del Análisis Factorial se obtiene los factores de exclusión identificando a los individuos vulnerables de cada región. Se estudia la incidencia de cada uno de estos factores por sexo y grupo de edad observando la evolución temporal en los distintos territorios. Esto permite analizar la situación de cada región y puede servir de ayuda para el diseño de políticas sociales que favorezcan la inclusión de estos individuos en la sociedad. ABSTRACT: The notion of social exclusion arises when we want to broaden the concept of poverty and deepen their knowledge by analyzing its structural and multidimensional character. The traditional description of poverty, based on material deprivation, not allows discovering the reasons of the diversity of ways in which it is manifested. Along with material deprivation, based on indicators of income and consumption, poverty often alludes to deprivation in areas such as education and health, vulnerability and exposure to risk, or lack of voice and power. To combat social exclusion, interventions cannot be limited only to the groups that are in this situation, but that is needed "to intervene in the area of vulnerability, which are reaching those who had been perfectly integrated into the order of work and employment insurance, people and groups who continue to thicken, so hopeless, stock excluded in our cities without intervention at these levels" (Economic and Social Council of the Canary Islands (1998)). Despite the abundant literature on the study of social exclusion and vulnerability, papers focused on the territory are limited. In the case of Spain this may be motivated by the lack of disaggregated data available until recently. The creation of new databases with detailed information about households and individuals on socio-economic variables at regional level, represents a clear breakthrough in development of lines of research to analyze the inter-regional differences. Recent studies in this context are Pérez Yruela et al. (2004a, 2004b and 2008), Subirats et al. (2005b), Foessa Report (2008), Ayala et al. (2011) and authors (2012). From data provided by the Living Conditions Survey for the years 2005 and 2009 we analyse the vulnerability to social exclusion of resident adults in Spain by Autonomous Communities. Using factor analysis we obtain the exclusion factors and identify vulnerable individuals in each region. For each individual it has been obtained its factorial score so the greater its value is, the more vulnerable the person is in the factor. Negative value means less vulnerability and near-zero values indicate people with average vulnerability. To find out who accounts for a significant vulnerability, the weighted sum of individual factors scores is obtained. This variable is a measure of the accumulation of factors of vulnerability in the person. We have identified the vulnerability to social exclusion in those people susceptible to suffer exclusion in the future. Following the methodology of the others authors (Subirats et al. 2005a) we have established as level of vulnerability at the percentile 70 distribution of accumulation of vulnerability factors. Vulnerability to social exclusion is defined as a situation of multidimensional social deprivation, manifested in the economic areas, labour, environmental, educational, health and housing. We have worked with variables grouped in these areas to find the factors of social exclusion through factor analysis. Various factors covering aspects such as the subjective perception of the individual, their educational level, their financial capacity, their State of health, the physical conditions of housing and the environment, among others have been obtained. Once selected individuals vulnerable to social exclusion in each of the CCAA, we have studied some factors that most affect each region distinguishing by gender and age. We study the incidence of these factors by gender and age group and we studying the time evolution in the territories. This has enabled us to analyze the situation of adults vulnerable to social exclusion in Spain and in each region in particular, and can help to design of social policies that favour the inclusion of these individuals in society.

Keywords: Encuesta de condiciones de vida; Exclusión social; Vulnerabilidad; Análisis factorial; Región; Survey of living conditions; Social exclusion; Vulnerability; Factor analysis (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: R1 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2012
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