From Administrative to Political Evaluation: Estimating Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Indicators for Parliamentary Constituencies in India
Rakesh Kumar and
Journal of Development Policy and Practice, 2019, vol. 4, issue 2, 188-212
Abstract With the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), India accelerated access to improved sanitation in a â€˜mass movementâ€™ emphasising peopleâ€™s participation and political leadership. However, SBM continues to be implemented at the administrative unit of districts, disassociated from the political and electoral units of Parliamentary Constituencies (PC). We provide estimates of Indiaâ€™s 543 PCs by their performance on three important Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) indicators: unsafe disposal of child stool, unimproved drinking water supply , and unimproved sanitary facilities . We used multilevel modelling to generate precision-weighted estimates of each indicator at PC-level, based on recently developed methodologies linking cluster GPS data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 2016 to potential PCs. We found very high heterogeneity across PCs ranging from 0.95 per centâ€“95.85 per cent for unsafe stool disposal, 0.35 per centâ€“64.17 per cent for unimproved drinking water source, and 0.19 per centâ€“90.69 per cent for unimproved sanitation facility. Unsafe child stool disposal and unimproved sanitary facility were strongly correlated ( r = 0.85, Pearson and r = 0.83, Spearman). Monitoring of SBM data at the PC level will allow parliamentarians to effectively improve WASH conditions in their constituencies, while accounting for critical between-PC variability that may be obfuscated in an approach focussed on state or district means.
Keywords: Swachh Bharat Mission; water; sanitation; parliamentary constituencies; national family health survey; India (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:sae:jodepp:v:4:y:2019:i:2:p:188-212
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