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Environmental Fiscal Instruments: A Few International Experiences

Rajat Verma and K. Gayithri

Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, 2018, vol. 12, issue 3, 333-368

Abstract: This article attempts to document the status of environmental fiscal instruments (EFIs) so as to explore relevant international experiences on ecotaxes in the context of India and to examine India’s specificities in these taxes within a wider perspective of other fiscal measures. Environmental levies across 15 countries were reviewed and the countries categorised are into two groups: Annex II and Non-Annex I. The revenues from levies imposed in the countries were also analysed. The most common form of taxes in Annex II countries in the form of energy taxes, followed by transport taxes. For India, energy and transport taxes could prove to be vital types of ecotaxes for addressing issues of climate change. Pollution taxes are difficult to levy for administrative reasons, but resource taxes are imperative because of severe environmental problems associated with mining and related activities. The revenue generated from environmental taxes and charges for all Annex II countries hovered between 2 and 4 per cent of their respective GDPs, except for Canada and the United States of America, whereas for Non-Annex I nations, this ranged only between 0 and 1 per cent. JEL Classification: H23, Q50, Q58

Keywords: Environmental fiscal instruments; Environmental taxes; Externalities (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2018
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Handle: RePEc:sae:mareco:v:12:y:2018:i:3:p:333-368