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The Economic Growth–Income Inequality–Poverty Nexus and Its Impact on Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence from India

Geetilaxmi Mohapatra and Arun Giri ()

Millennial Asia, 2022, vol. 13, issue 3, 470-490

Abstract: This study attempts to examine the main forces affecting short-run and long-run carbon emission patterns due to changes in economic growth, income inequality and poverty in India over the period 1982–2018. For this purpose, it uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration technique and the vector error correction model (VECM) based on Granger causality tests. The stationary properties of the variables are checked using the Ng–Perron test. The results of the ARDL bounds test confirm the long-run relationship among the variables. Further, the ARDL coefficient confirms that economic growth and poverty increase carbon emissions in both the short and long run. The empirical findings of the causality test indicate the presence of short-run causality running from economic growth and poverty reduction to environmental degradation. Hence, the study recommends that policymakers must devote more attention to alleviating poverty and reducing income inequalities through redistributing transfers, investing on universal access to health and education, implementing progressive taxation policies, empowering women and enforcing the Clean India mission, which will have a positive impact on reducing environmental degradation in India. Further, the study also recommends appropriate environmental regulations that can substantially stimulate innovations to increase energy efficiency and thereby reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions.

Keywords: Economic growth; carbon emissions; income inequality; poverty; ARDL; India (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2022
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DOI: 10.1177/09763996211023878

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