Rural–urban differentials in out-of-pocket health expenditure and resultant impoverishment in India: evidence from NSSO 71st Round
Varun Dutt and
Ramna Thakur ()
Additional contact information
Shivendra Sangar: Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi
Varun Dutt: Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi
Ramna Thakur: Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi
Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science, 2019, vol. 3, issue 1, 273-291
Abstract In low- and middle-income countries including India people often face the problem of affordability and access to health care, especially the poor and vulnerable. A high share of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure in total health expenditure puts a catastrophic burden on population and pushes them below the poverty line. Therefore, the present paper seeks to examine the level of economic burden and the resultant impoverishment of OOP expenditure among different socio-economic variables, separately for rural and urban areas in India. The current paper uses the cross-sectional data from the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 71st (Key indicators of social consumption in India: health, 71st round (January–June 2014). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014) round. Results reveal that in urban areas, the incidence of OOP health expenditure is concentrated towards poorer consumption groups, whereas in rural areas, it is pro-rich, especially at higher threshold levels. Rural population spent a higher proportion of consumption expenditure on health care, whereas average per capita health expenditure is higher in urban areas. Results also show that 8.1 and 7.9% population in rural and urban areas, respectively, fell below the poverty line due to OOP health expenditure. The poverty deepening is much higher in rural areas as compared to urban areas. Among different socio-economic variables, Muslims, Other Backward Classes, and casual labour have a higher burden of OOP health expenditure and poverty impact, especially in urban areas. We conclude that the unavoidable and extensive dependence on OOP health expenditure leads to poverty, thus making a strong case for the implementation of universal health coverage.
Keywords: Out-of-pocket; Burden; Impoverishment; Rural; Urban (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s41685-018-0095-z Abstract (text/html)
Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:spr:apjors:v:3:y:2019:i:1:d:10.1007_s41685-018-0095-z
Ordering information: This journal article can be ordered from
https://www.springer ... cience/journal/41685
Access Statistics for this article
Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science is currently edited by Yoshiro Higano
More articles in Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science from Springer
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Sonal Shukla ().