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Can coal replace other fossil fuels to fulfil the energy demand in Pakistan? An environmental impact analysis

Yousaf Ali (), Awan Memoona (), Claudio Socci () and Sania Binte Saleem ()
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Yousaf Ali: Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
Awan Memoona: Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
Claudio Socci: University of Macerata
Sania Binte Saleem: Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science, 2019, vol. 3, issue 2, 293-318

Abstract: Abstract Energy is considered as the backbone of an economy since all the production is dependent on energy consumption. Fossil fuels are currently the major energy source in most of the developing and developed countries. The use of fossil fuels as energy source does not seem to support the concept of sustainability but in developing economies like Pakistan, the use of the indigenous fossil resources is vital to fulfill the energy demand of the country and to improve the socio-economic status of the people. In this study, we have used environmental input–output (EIO) analysis for the estimation of direct and indirect CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption by the economy in year 2012. Keeping in view the huge coal reserves in Thar Desert of Pakistan, we have developed a policy scenario in which coal is substituted by 100% for other fossil fuel types. Total CO2 emissions for this case are noted to be 16% higher than those estimated for 2012. CO2 emissions per capita come out to be 0.85 tons which is still less than that of India, China, USA, Middle East and Europe. This study recommends the use of indigenous coal as a short-term solution to the energy crisis in the country. Research and development activities should be escalated for a gradual transition toward more sustainable energy systems.

Keywords: Environmental input–output analysis; Indigenous energy resources; Energy crisis; Pakistan (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2019
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