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The pillars determining financial inclusion among SMEs in Egypt: service awareness, access and usage metrics and macroeconomic policies

Mohamed Samy ElDeeb (), Yasser Tawfik Halim () and Esmat Mostafa Kamel ()
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Mohamed Samy ElDeeb: October University for Modern Sciences and Arts
Yasser Tawfik Halim: October University for Modern Sciences and Arts
Esmat Mostafa Kamel: October University for Modern Sciences and Arts

Future Business Journal, 2021, vol. 7, issue 1, 1-19

Abstract: Abstract Over the past decade, financial inclusion has been a trending topic and key priority in developing countries seeking to build a resilient financial sector and pursuing economic growth. Most of the recently launched financial inclusion initiatives in Egypt, especially those aligned with the 2030 sustainability strategy, have targeted marginalized and excluded individuals. Only a few have addressed the financial inclusion of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Accordingly, this paper aims to identify the main pillars of financial inclusion for SMEs. In keeping up with the mainstream literature, it introduces a number of financial inclusion determinants designed to attract SMEs. They include supply-side determinants such as access to financial services and marketing awareness campaigns, which act as tools to segment financial services and market their benefits to SMEs, and demand-side determinants, which involve the use of financial services. Finally, there is an assessment of the macroeconomic risks to investors and SMEs. The researchers’ methodology was based on first deriving a novel dataset from responses to a questionnaire addressing bankers who manage SME portfolios, second analyzing the dataset through descriptive and inferential statistics and third undertaking a twofold econometric estimation. The econometric estimations started with principal component analysis (PCA) and proceeded to a logistic regression to determine the significant variables pertinent to increasing the financial inclusion of SMEs. The PCA suggested three main pillars determining financial inclusion. They are integrated marketing tools, which increase SMEs’ awareness of and access to the most sophisticated banking services, usage of banking services, and assessment of the macroeconomic risks that would prevent SMEs from gaining access to financial services. As well, the interaction term between the variables derived from the three pillars accounts for a variability of 86.6% in the level of financial inclusion of Egypt’s SMEs.

Keywords: Financial inclusion; SMEs; Usage of banking services; Marketing awareness tools; Macroeconomic risk; Principal component analysis; Egypt (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2021
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DOI: 10.1186/s43093-021-00073-w

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