Economics at your fingertips  

Do deep and comprehensive regional trade agreements help in reducing air pollution?

Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso and Walid Oueslati ()

International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 2018, vol. 18, issue 6, 743-777

Abstract: Abstract Environmental concerns are increasingly being incorporated into regional trade agreements (RTAs) to promote environmental quality and ultimately ensure compatibility between trade and environmental policies. This occurs in a context where air pollution and its effects on human health are of major concern. This paper investigates whether the proliferation and depth of environmental provisions (EPs) in RTAs are associated with lower concentration levels of particulate matter. We present an index of EPs in RTAs that measures the breadth and depth of the provisions and use it to estimate the effect of ratifying RTAs with different levels of EPs on changes in PM2.5 concentration levels in a panel of OECD countries over the 1999–2011 period. Using an instrumental variables strategy, we find that countries that have ratified RTAs with EPs show lower levels of PM2.5 concentrations when we control for scale, composition and technique effects and for national environmental regulations. Moreover, the PM2.5 concentration levels in the pairs of countries that belong to an RTA with EPs tend to converge for the country sample. The results also hold for a longer period of time (1990–2011) and a broader sample of 173 countries as well as for other pollutants, namely CO2 and NO2.

Keywords: Regional trade agreements; Environmental provisions; Legal enforcement; Convergence; Environmental regulations; PM2.5; NO2; CO2; Trade flows (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2018
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed

Downloads: (external link) Abstract (text/html)
Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

Related works:
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.

Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/Text

Persistent link:

Ordering information: This journal article can be ordered from

Access Statistics for this article

International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics is currently edited by Joyeeta Gupta

More articles in International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics from Springer
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Sonal Shukla ().

Page updated 2019-04-13
Handle: RePEc:spr:ieaple:v:18:y:2018:i:6:d:10.1007_s10784-018-9414-0