Twice Migrants in Canada: Who Are They and How Do They Perform Economically?
Sandeep Kumar Agrawal ()
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Sandeep Kumar Agrawal: University of Alberta
Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2016, vol. 17, issue 3, No 2, 669-686
Abstract Immigrants known as “twice migrants” are those who arrive in Canada via an intermediate country, that is, not directly from their country of birth. With a focus on large contemporary immigrant groups in Canada—South Asians, Chinese and Filipinos in particular—this study develops socio-economic profiles of twice migrants and assesses their economic performance in comparison to that of direct migrants. The study uses custom tables of multiple national level datasets as well as qualitative interviews with a selected group of twice-migrant families to arrive at its findings. The results show that relative to direct migrants, twice migrants were older, more likely to speak a Canadian official language, slightly more educated and more skilled. These human capital characteristics did not however fully translate into economic success. Political and economic situations both in the country of birth and the country of last place of residence affect the flow of twice migration. Lack of job opportunities in Canada forced many twice migrant families to split between two countries.
Keywords: Twice migrants; Economic performance; South Asian; Canada (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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