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The Careers of Immigrants in Finland: Empirical Evidence for Genders and Year of Immigration

Henna Busk () and Signe Jauhiainen
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Henna Busk: Pellervo Economic Research PTT
Signe Jauhiainen: The Social Insurance Institution of Finland

Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2022, vol. 23, issue 4, No 18, 2009-2030

Abstract: Abstract This study offers new empirical evidence on the careers of immigrants in the new host country. The focus is on the effects of gender and year of immigration on employment. Integration of immigrants into labour market is vital since employment determines the outcome of migration at the personal level and for the economy of the host country. We utilise longitudinal micro-level data from Finland and provide evidence from a country where large-scale immigration occurred as late as 2000s. The results suggest that men have longer working careers than women. Especially, the effects of family characteristics differ between men and women. Having underage children is associated with shorter working careers among women while the findings are opposite for men. The differences in the length of career according to the year of arrival appear in the analysis when several individual characteristics are taken into account. Hence, the different composition of immigrants arriving in different times does not fully explain employment outcomes. The results imply that social and economic conditions during the year in which immigration takes place have a lasting impact on future working years. Since the year of immigration and gender are relevant factors in the integration process, policy instruments are needed to improve integration of both genders and in timely manner after arrival.

Keywords: Immigrants; Employment; Gender; Longitudinal data (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2022
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DOI: 10.1007/s12134-021-00924-z

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