The impact of population density, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in India
Ramphul Ohlan ()
Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, 2015, vol. 79, issue 2, 1409-1428
As the world’s third largest carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitter, India has long been believed to mostly compromise with international environmental obligation. Using annual data for the period 1970–2013, the study investigates the impact of population density, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in India. It applies the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration for establishing the existence of a long-run relationship and uses vector error correction model to determine the direction of causality between the variables. The results indicate that there is a meaningful long-run relationship between CO 2 emissions and socioeconomic factors. We find that population density, energy consumption and economic growth have statistically significant positive effect on CO 2 emissions both in the short-run and long-run. Among these three drivers, population density proves the main influencing factor of CO 2 emissions changes. Therefore, a cautious population stabilization policy in the country would assist in reducing CO 2 emissions and sustaining long-run economic growth. The findings further support the continued policy actions to develop the alternative energy sources such as renewable, and to use green and clean technologies to curb CO 2 emissions without reducing energy consumption. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015
Keywords: Population density; Energy consumption; Economic growth; Trade openness; CO 2 emissions; ARDL; VECM; Variance decomposition (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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