Direct Medical Costs, Productivity Loss Costs and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Women with Breast Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review
Alfredo Palacios (),
Andres Pichon-Riviere and
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Carlos Rojas-Roque: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
Lucas González: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
Ariel Bardach: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
Agustín Ciapponi: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
Claudia Peckaitis: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
Andres Pichon-Riviere: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
Federico Augustovski: Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS)
PharmacoEconomics, 2021, vol. 39, issue 5, No 2, 485-502
Abstract Objective Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify, categorise, assess, and synthesise the healthcare costs of patients with breast cancer (BC) and their relatives in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods In December 2020, we searched for published data in PubMed, LILACS, EMBASE, and other sources, including the grey literature. Studies were eligible if they were conducted in LAC and reported the direct medical costs, productivity loss costs, out-of-pocket expenditure, and other costs to patients with BC and their relatives. No restrictions were imposed on the type of BC population (metastatic BC or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/negative BC, among others). We summarised the characteristics and methodological approach of each study and the healthcare costs by cancer stage. We also developed and applied an original ad hoc instrument to assess the quality of the cost estimation studies. Results We identified 2725 references and 63 included studies. In total, 79.3% of the studies solely reported direct medical costs and five solely reported costs to patients and their relatives. Only 14.3% of the studies were classified as of high quality. The pooled weighted average direct medical cost per patient-year (year 2020 international dollars [I$]) by BC stage was I$13,179 for stage I, I$15,556 for stage II, I$23,444 for stage III, and I$28,910 for stage IV. Conclusion This review provides the first synthesis of BC costs in LAC. Our findings show few high-quality costing studies in BC and a gap in the literature measuring costs to patients and their relatives. The high costs associated with the advanced stages of BC call into question the affordability of treatments and their accessibility for patients. Registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018106835).
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