Quadrilateral Relationship Between Information and Communications Technology, Patent Applications, Research and Development Expenditures, and Growth Factors: Evidence from the Group of Seven (G-7) Countries
Haroon Ur Rashid Khan,
Khalid Zaman (),
Anwar Khan and
Talat Islam ()
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Haroon Ur Rashid Khan: King Abdulaziz University
Khalid Zaman: Abbottabad University of Science and Technology
Anwar Khan: Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Talat Islam: University of the Punjab
Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, 2017, vol. 133, issue 3, No 17, 1165-1191
Abstract The quadrilateral relationship between information and communications technology (ICT), patent applications, research and development expenditures and specific growth factors examine to formulate the broad-based growth policies in the context of Group of seven (G-7) countries, over the period of 1995–2013. The ICT variables are explained by internet users, mobile cellular subscriptions and high-technology exports; while research and development (R&D) variables include R&D expenditures and researchers in R&D. Patent data is used to evaluate the amount of innovation undertaken in the G-7 countries and it comprises residential patent applicants and non-residential patent applicants. Finally, the study used three growth factors including GDP per capita, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and GDP per unit use of energy for appraising the growth reforms in the G-7 countries. The results show that there is a significant and positive relationship between high-technology exports and growth factors, while there is a negative relationship between residential patent applicants and per capita GDP (and FDI inflows). Non-residential patent applicants’ increases GDP per capita while it decreases energy efficiency. Residential patent applicants’ significantly increases energy efficiency in the region. There is a negative relationship between R&D expenditures and GDP per capita (and energy efficiency), while researchers involved in R&D activities significantly enlarge the per capita GDP and energy efficiency in the G-7 countries. The results of variance decomposition analysis confirmed the importance of ICT over the next 10 years period. The study concludes that R&D expenditures and innovation required strong policy vista in order to amplify the growth factors in the region.
Keywords: Information and communications technology; Patent applicants; Research and development expenditures; Growth factors; Panel two-stage least square regression; Variance decomposition analysis; G-7 countries (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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