The causal dynamics between renewable energy, real GDP, emissions and oil prices: evidence from OECD countries
Nicholas Apergis () and
James Payne ()
Applied Economics, 2014, vol. 46, issue 36, 4519-4525
This study extends the empirical literature on the determinants of renewable energy consumption in the case of 25 OECD countries for the period 1980-2011. Preliminary analysis suggests the presence of cross-sectional dependence within the panel data. As a result, second-generation panel unit root tests of Smith et al . (2004) and Pesaran (2007) are undertaken to find the respective variables that are integrated of order one. Panel cointegration and error correction modelling reveal that a long-run relationship exists between renewable energy consumption per capita, real GDP per capita, carbon dioxide emissions per capita and real oil prices. The long-run elasticity estimates are positive and statistically significant for real GDP per capita, carbon dioxide emissions per capita and real oil prices. The panel error correction model shows that a feedback relationship exists among the variables.
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