CALCULATING ENERGY-RELATED CO 2 EMISSIONS EMBODIED IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE USING A GLOBAL INPUT--OUTPUT MODEL
Stefan Giljum and
Economic Systems Research, 2012, vol. 24, issue 2, 113-139
The Global Resource Accounting Model (GRAM) is an environmentally-extended multi-regional input--output model, covering 48 sectors in 53 countries and two regions. Next to CO 2 emissions, GRAM also includes different resource categories. Using GRAM, we are able to estimate the amount of carbon emissions embodied in international trade for each year between 1995 and 2005. These results include all origins and destinations of emissions, so that emissions can be allocated to countries consuming the products that embody these emissions. Net-CO 2 imports of OECD countries increased by 80% between 1995 and 2005. These findings become particularly relevant, as the externalisation of environmental burden through international trade might be an effective strategy for industrialised countries to maintain high environmental quality within their own borders, while externalising the negative environmental consequences of their consumption processes to other parts of the world. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects and data requirements of the model, and shows results for selected countries and aggregated regions.
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