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A national inventory and analysis of US transfer of development rights programs

Todd K. BenDor, Jordan Branham, Andrew Whittemore, Evangeline Linkous and Dylan Timmerman

Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 2022, vol. 65, issue 12, 2276-2296

Abstract: Transfer of development rights (TDR) programs shift development intensity between land parcels. Jurisdictions, most commonly local municipal or county governments, employ TDR to protect resources such as farmland or historical properties and to encourage infill and redevelopment where deemed appropriate. However, while championed by economists and others seeking to reduce conflicts between land development and preservation, TDR program adoption has varied widely across the US. What demographic, economic, or environmental factors are associated with TDR program establishment? This paper describes a census of 375 TDR programs in the United States, documenting primary program attributes and adoption year and categorizing their functions and typology. Using logistic regression, we analyze program spatial patterns and factors predicting program implementation. We find that areas that are coastal, more liberal, have higher home values, in home-rule states, and in states with state-wide growth management programs, are all significantly more likely to implement TDR programs.

Date: 2022
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DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2021.1971068

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