Are There Glass-Ceiling and Sticky-Floor Effects in India? An Empirical Examination
Oxford Development Studies, 2013, vol. 41, issue 3, 322-342
In this paper, the gender-related wage differentials in the rural and urban sectors of the Indian economy are analysed. The hypotheses that there is a glass-ceiling effect--a greater wage gap at the top end of the wage-distribution range--and a sticky-floor effect--a wider wage gap at the bottom are examined. Findings show evidence of the glass-ceiling effect in the rural sector and evidence of the sticky-floor effect in the urban sector. Using a counterfactual decomposition method, the raw wage gap is decomposed to identify the contributions of characteristics and coefficients. The results reveal the presence of labour--market discrimination against women. Furthermore, women at the lower end of the wage-distribution spectrum face more discrimination than those at the higher end of the range.
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