HETEROGENEITY IN RETURNS TO INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION IN EGYPT
Santiago Herrera () and
Karim Badr ()
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Santiago Herrera: World Bank, Ghana, Liberia and Sierre Leone Office, Independence Avenue, 10th Street, North Ridge, Aeera, Ghana
Karim Badr: World Bank, Cairo Office, 1191 Cournich El Nile Street, Cairo, Egypt
Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), 2013, vol. 05, issue 03, 1-43
The paper estimates the rates of return to investment in education in Egypt, allowing for multiple sources of heterogeneity across individuals. The paper finds that, in the period 1998–2006, returns to education increased for workers with higher education, but fell for workers with intermediate education levels; the relative wage of illiterate workers also fell in the period. This change can be explained by supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the number of workers with intermediate education, as well as illiterate ones, outpaced the growth of other categories joining the labor force during the decade. From the labor demand side, the Egyptian economy experienced a structural transformation by which sectors demanding higher-skilled labor expanded. In Egypt, individuals are sorted into different educational tracks, creating the first source of heterogeneity. Second, the paper finds that large-firm workers earn higher returns than small-firm workers. Third, females have larger returns to education. Formal workers earn higher rates of return to education than those in the informal sector, which did not happen a decade earlier. And finally, those individuals with access to technology (as proxied by personal computer ownership) have higher returns.
Keywords: Egypt; returns to education; firm size; gender; access to technology; formality (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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