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What Drives the Bank–Firm Relationship? A Case Study of the Polish Credit Market

Małgorzata Pawłowska (), Krzysztof Gajewski and Wojciech Rogowski

A chapter in Macroeconomic Analysis and International Finance, 2014, vol. 23, pp 235-268 from Emerald Publishing Ltd

Abstract: Abstract Purpose The aim of this study is to understand the determinants of relationship between banks and nonfinancial corporations within Poland (which are considered relationship banking from this point onward). Design/methodology/approach The main sources of data used in the study are the large credit database (credit register of the National Bank of Poland (NBP)) and other aggregated data, including data from the Warsaw Stock Exchange and the NBP. Econometric panel logit methods have been used to test how different factors affect bank–firm relationships. Three main groups of factors have been investigated: the characteristics of the firm (i.e., size, ownership type, and R&D activity); the characteristics of the financial sector (i.e., competition in the banking sector); and macroeconomic conditions. Findings The findings demonstrate that Polish firms readily establish single-bank relationships, and firms with the highest quality of credit portfolios borrow often from multiple creditors. All conducted estimations demonstrated that the relationship between financing from a single bank and from foreign capital had a positive sign. Also, a decrease in concentration in the banking sector, which may be identified with an increase in competition, supports the establishment of relationship banking. Research limitations/implications The study was performed using the data from large exposure database collected for supervisory purposes. Exposures (credits, derivatives, etc.) larger than 500 thousand PLN (approx. 120 thousand EUR) were only considered. Future research on bank–firm relationships should focus on the influence of financing costs, maintaining relationships when the borrower is in a difficult financial position, and other unique features of banks using the strategy of relationship financing. Practical implications The understanding of the characteristics of bank–firm relationships can help to improve banking practice and supervisory policy in Poland. Originality/value This study makes a noticeable contribution to the understanding of the banking sector and its relationships with nonfinancial corporations in Poland. It is the first empirical study on such a large sample of panel data from Polish banking sector and industries, too.

Keywords: Number of bank relationships; relationship banking; G21; G30; G32; E21; C41 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2014
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