EconPapers    
Economics at your fingertips  
 

Machine learning in credit risk: measuring the dilemma between prediction and supervisory cost

Andres Alonso () and José Manuel Carbó ()
Additional contact information
José Manuel Carbó: Banco de España

No 2032, Working Papers from Banco de España

Abstract: New reports show that the financial sector is increasingly adopting machine learning (ML) tools to manage credit risk. In this environment, supervisors face the challenge of allowing credit institutions to benefit from technological progress and financial innovation, while at the same ensuring compatibility with regulatory requirements and that technological neutrality is observed. We propose a new framework for supervisors to measure the costs and benefits of evaluating ML models, aiming to shed more light on this technology’s alignment with the regulation. We follow three steps. First, we identify the benefits by reviewing the literature. We observe that ML delivers predictive gains of up to 20?% in default classification compared with traditional statistical models. Second, we use the process for validating internal ratings-based (IRB) systems for regulatory capital to detect ML’s limitations in credit risk mangement. We identify up to 13 factors that might constitute a supervisory cost. Finally, we propose a methodology for evaluating these costs. For illustrative purposes, we compute the benefits by estimating the predictive gains of six ML models using a public database on credit default. We then calculate a supervisory cost function through a scorecard in which we assign weights to each factor for each ML model, based on how the model is used by the financial institution and the supervisor’s risk tolerance. From a supervisory standpoint, having a structured methodology for assessing ML models could increase transparency and remove an obstacle to innovation in the financial industry.

Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; credit risk; interpretability; bias; IRB models (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C53 D81 G17 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 34 pages
Date: 2020-10
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-ban, nep-big, nep-cmp, nep-fmk, nep-pay and nep-rmg
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (6) Track citations by RSS feed

Downloads: (external link)
https://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicac ... 20/Files/dt2032e.pdf First version, October 2020 (application/pdf)

Related works:
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.

Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/Text

Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:bde:wpaper:2032

Access Statistics for this paper

More papers in Working Papers from Banco de España Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by María Beiro. Electronic Dissemination of Information Unit. Research Department. Banco de España ().

 
Page updated 2022-06-27
Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:2032