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Women and the Italian economy

Magda Bianco (), Francesca Lotti () and Roberta Zizza ()
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Magda Bianco: Bank of Italy

No 171, Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) from Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area

Abstract: Gender gaps in the labour market, in boardrooms and in wages are still significant in Italy. This paper, which summarizes the main results of a research project aimed at identifying the economic consequences of these gaps and their main causes, presents some evidence regarding wage differentials, differences in the gender composition of boards and differentials in access to credit. The causes of these persistent gaps are found both in labour supply and demand factors. Among the former we count the dearth of policies and programmes to reconcile work and family commitments and the lack of flexibility in the workplace; education is also relevant in some respects. Among the latter, we include cultural factors and “implicit” discrimination, i.e. when the labour market rewards traits more commonly found in men even when they have no bearing on specific job requirements. Some policies to narrow gender gaps are discussed: national and regional legislation; subsidies for female entrepreneurship; a tax system that does not discourage female labour supply.

Keywords: gender gap; conciliation; discrimination; politics (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: J1 J16 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2013-06
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-dem and nep-eur
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