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The Surprising Wealth of Pre-industrial England

Brock Smith (), Gregory Clark () and Joseph Cummins

No 139, Working Papers from University of California, Davis, Department of Economics

Abstract: Occupations listed in wills reveal that as early as 1560 effectively only 60% of the English engaged in farming. Even by 1817, well into the Industrial Revolution, the equivalent primary share, once we count in food and raw material imports, was still 52%. By implication, incomes in pre-industrial England were close to those of 1800. Urbanization rates are not a good guide to pre-industrial income levels. Many rural workers were engaged in manufacturing, services and trade. The occupation shares also imply pre-industrial England was rich enough in 1560 to rank above the bottom fifth of countries in 2007.

Keywords: Growth; England; Pre-industrial (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: N13 O40 O52 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2010-07-06
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