Maternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Participation and Part-Time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction
Eva Berger ()
No 890, Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin from DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research
In contrast to unemployment, the effect of non-participation and parttime employment on subjective well-being has much less frequently been the subject of economists' investigations. In Germany, many women with dependent children are involuntarily out of the labor force or in part-time employment because of family constraints (e.g., due to lack of available and appropriate childcare). Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) Study, this paper analyzes the impact of involuntary familyrelated non-participation and part-time employment on mothers' life satisfaction. Controlling for unobserved individual fixed effects, I find that both the pecuniary effects (foregone earnings) and the non-pecuniary effects (psychological costs) are significantly negative. Compensating income variations reveal that the residual household income would have to be raised by 182 percent (157 percent/77 percent) in order to just offset the negative effect of not being able to work because of family constraints (of being in short/long part-time employment). Moreover, in terms of overall happiness among mothers, non-participation is revealed to be a more serious problem than unemployment.
Keywords: Subjective well-being; life satisfaction; labor force participation; part-time; maternal employment; work-family conflict (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I31 J21 J22 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 28 p.
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-hap, nep-lab and nep-ltv
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Working Paper: Maternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Participation and Part-Time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction (2009)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp890
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