THE ROLE OF DISSATISFACTION AND PER CAPITA INCOME IN EXPLAINING SELF-EMPLOYMENT ACROSS 15 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Sander Wennekers (),
André van Stel (),
Niels Noorderhaven () and
Roy Thurik ()
Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy from Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group
This paper deals with explaining the sizable differences in the rate of self-employment (business ownership) across 15 European countries in the period 1978-2000, within a framework of occupational choice, focusing on the influence of dissatisfaction and of per capita income. Using two different measures of dissatisfaction, in addition to the level of economic development and controlling for several other variables, we find that, in addition to a negative and significant impact of per capita income, dissatisfaction at the level of societies has a positive and significant influence on self-employment levels. Both dissatisfaction with life and dissatisfaction with the way democracy works are found to influence self-employment. It is concluded that these are proxies for job dissatisfaction and at the same time represent other negative 'displacements' known to promote self-employment. The findings indirectly point at the potential importance of push factors within the incentive structures of modern economies.
Keywords: comparative analysis of economies; cultural economics; entrepreneurship; macro-economic analyses of economic development (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: P52 Z1 M13 O11 O57 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (37) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Our link check indicates that this URL is bad, the error code is: 500 Failed to connect to FTP server papers.econ.mpg.de: No such host is known.
Working Paper: The role of dissatisfaction and per capita income in explaining self-employment across 15 European countries (2004)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:esi:egpdis:2004-11
Ordering information: This working paper can be ordered from
http://www.econ.mpg. ... arch/EGP/discuss.php
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy from Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Kerstin SchÃ¼ck (). This e-mail address is bad, please contact .