Gender empowerment gaps in agriculture and childrenâ€™s well-being in Bangladesh
Hazel Jean Malapit,
Agnes Quisumbing () and
No 1470, IFPRI discussion papers from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Development programs that reduce gender gaps are expected to not only improve womenâ€™s well-being, but also their childrenâ€™s. This draws on a growing body of literature that shows a strong positive association between womenâ€™s status and control over resources and improvements in childrenâ€™s outcomes, particularly nutrition and education. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence on the relationship between empowerment gaps between men and women in the same household and childrenâ€™s well-being using nationally representative data from the 2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). We measure childrenâ€™s well-being using nutritional status for younger children (ages 0â€“5) and education outcomes for older children (ages 6â€“10 and 11â€“17). We measure relative empowerment using direct measures of empowerment collected from men and women in the same households using the Womenâ€™s Empowerment in Agriculture Index. Our findings suggest that gender gaps in empowerment are only weakly linked to childrenâ€™s nutrition, although different measures of empowerment reveal significant differences between boysâ€™ and girlsâ€™ outcomes, depending on the measures used. Overall, the household headâ€™s (fatherâ€™s) education is significantly associated with better nutrition and education outcomes for children, but younger girls (ages 6â€“10) and older boys and girls (ages 11â€“17) are more likely to receive more education when mothers are more educated. Our results on parental education suggest that fathersâ€™ empowerment may be reflecting a â€œwealthâ€ effect that is invested in childrenâ€™s nutrition and education when they are young, while mothersâ€™ empowerment becomes more important in girlsâ€™ education in general and keeping older children, regardless of sex, in school.
Keywords: gender; women; education; nutrition; children; social welfare; households; role of women (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1470
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